Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumor: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Analysis of 19 Cases

April 27, 2020 | Histopathology

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A malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is rare, and it is therefore yet to be completely understood. This study aimed to present the clinicopathologic features of GNET, including treatment information. We included 19 patients with GNET with a mean tumor size of 4.2 cm. The most common site of tumor origin was the small intestine (57.9%), followed by the stomach (15.8%), colon (10.5%), ileocecal junction (5.3%), lower esophagus (5.3%), and anal canal (5.3%). Microscopically, the tumors were composed of epithelioid cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm arranged in nest, sheet-like, papillary, or pseudoalveolar patterns and/or spindle tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm arranged in a fascicular pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells stained positively for S100 (19/19,100%), SOX10 (14/15, 93.3%), vimentin (17/17, 100%), synaptophysin (Syn) (7/17, 41.2%), CD56 (4/13, 30.8%), CD99 (1/5, 20%), and CD117 (1/15, 6.7%), and negatively for HMB45, Melan A, DOG1, CD34, AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, chromogranin A, smooth muscle actin, and desmin. In total, 14/15 (93.3%) cases showed split Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene (EWSR1) signals consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. Within a mean follow-up of 29.7 months (range: 3 to 63 mo), 2/15 (13.3%) patients died of disease, 5 (33.3%) were alive with disease, and 8 (53.3%) had no evidence of disease. Two and 1 patients showed partial response to apatinib and anlotinib, respectively. In conclusion, GNET has distinctive morphologi... More of this in the AJSP Blog.

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