Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Ovarian Carcinoma: Frequency, Causes, and Consequences

May 01, 2020 | Histopathology

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Mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) is involved in the initiation of both hereditary and sporadic tumors. MMRD has been extensively studied in colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer, but not so in other tumors, such as ovarian carcinoma. We have determined the expression of mismatch repair proteins in a large cohort of 502 early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma entailing all the 5 main subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (EOC), clear cell carcinoma (CCC), mucinous carcinoma, and low-grade serous carcinoma. We studied the association of MMRD with clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in EOC, the histologic type in which MMRD is most frequent. In addition, MLH1 promoter methylation status and massive parallel sequencing were used to evaluate the proportion of sporadic and Lynch syndrome–associated tumors, and the most frequently mutated genes in MMRD EOCs. MMRD occurred only in endometriosis-associated histologic types, and it was much more frequent in EOC (18%) than in CCC (2%). The most frequent immunohistochemical pattern was loss of MLH1/PMS2, and in this group, 80% of the cases were sporadic and secondary to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. The presence of somatic mutations in mismatch repair genes was the other mechanism of MMRD in sporadic tumors. In this series, the minimum estimated frequency of Lynch syndrome was 35% and it was due to germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6. ARID1A, PTEN, KTM2B, and PIK3CA were the... Want to read more? Find the complete article in the The American Journal of Surgical Pathology Blog.

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